Reinventing the Sexes

Reinventing the Sexes

The Biomedical Construction of Femininity and Masculinity
Marianne van den Wijngaard
Distribution: World
Publication date: 5/1/1997
ISBN: 978-0-253-11546-1
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Description

“The book is accessible and well written, and the issues are thoughtfully analyzed.” —Choice

An insightful examination of how traditional views of femininity and masculinity have influenced scientific research about sexual differences in the brain. The book chronicles the phallocentric underpinnings of research in the field and the subsequent contribution of feminist intellectual thought to the modification of scientific practice.

Author Bio

Marianne van den Wijngaard developed courses in women’s studies in the Department of Biology at the University of Amsterdam; she has written numerous articles in both Dutch and English on her research concerning gender and biology.

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Table of Contents

1. Femininity and Women in Biology and Feminist Theory
1.1 Gender Trouble and Making Sex
1.2 Back and Forward to Nurture and Nature
1.3 Feminist Visions of Biological Sex Differences
1.4 Feminist Ideology Haunted by Biology
1.5 Biological Ideology Haunted by Feminism
1.6 Toward Construction of Masculinity and Femininity
1.7 Possibilities and Constraints
1.8 Why the Brain?

2. Acceptance of Scientific Theories and Images Concerning Masculinity and Femininity
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Introduction and Context of the Proposal of the Organization Theory
2.3 Acceptance and Extension of the Organization Theory
2.4 Reasons for Acceptance of the Organization Theory
2.5 Conversion of Androgens to Estradiol
2.6 Mechanisms Perpetuating the Dual Function of Hormones
2.7 Conclusions

3. Feminism and the Biological Construction of Female and Male Behavior
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Biological Theory on Development of Behavior
3.3 Masculinity and Femininity in the Experiments
3.4 Criticisms of the Organization Theory
3.5 A Cry for the Liberation of the Female Rodent
3.6 Reinventing Female Appetitive Activities
3.7 Feminism and the Biological Construction of Human Behavior
3.8 Environmental Factors and the Biological Construction of Behavior
3.9 ‘Sexually Dimorphic’ Behavior Challenged/Unlimited
3.10 Conclusions

4. The Construction of Women and Men in Medical Practice
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Pseudo-hermaphroditism Through the Ages
4.3 Medical Considerations in the Treatment of Ambiguous Sex
4.4 Treatment of Psychological Masculinity and Femininity
4.5 Asymmetrical Duality Within the Theory
4.6 Transference of Fundamental Knowledge into Medical Practice
4.7 Conclusions

5. Reinventing the Sexes
5.1 1959–1971 Masculine Monism
5.2 1971–1976 Introduction of Femininity, Return to Dualism
5.3 1977–1985 Dualism Unlimited
5.4 1959–1985 Dualism Revised
5.5 Nature-Nurture Revised
5.6 Behavior Changes Nature and Nurture
5.7 Feminism Revised
5.8 Science and Gender Perspectives
Bibliography