The "Racial" Economy of Science

The “Racial” Economy of Science

Toward a Democratic Future
Edited by Sandra Harding
Distribution: World
Publication date: 10/1/1993
ISBN: 978-0-253-11553-9
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1994 Critics’ Choice Award
A Choice Outstanding Academic Book of 1995
“The classic and recent essays gathered here will challenge scholars in the natural sciences, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and women’s studies to examine the role of racism in the construction and application of the sciences. Harding . . . has also created a useful text for diverse classroom settings.” —Library Journal

“A rich lode of readily accessible thought on the nature and practice of science in society. Highly recommended.” —Choice

“This is an excellent collection of essays that should prove useful in a wide range of STS courses.” —Science, Technology, and Society

“ . . . important and provocative . . . ” —The Women’s Review of Books

“The timeliness and utility of this large interdisciplinary reader on the relation of Western science to other cultures and to world history can hardly be overemphasized. It provides a tremendous resource for teaching and for research . . . ” —Ethics

“Excellent.” —The Reader’s Review

“Sandra Harding is an intellectually fearless scholar. She has assembled a bold, impressive collection of essays to make a volume of illuminating power. This brilliantly edited book is essential reading for all who seek understanding of the multicultural debates of our age. Never has a book been more timely.” —Darlene Clark Hine

These authors dispute science’s legitimation of culturally approved definitions of race difference—including craniology and the measurement of IQ, the notorious Tuskegee syphilis experiments, and the dependence of Third World research on First World agendas.

Author Bio

SANDRA HARDING, a philosopher, is Professor of Education and Women Studies at UCLA. She is author of Whose Science: Whose Knowledge?: Thinking from Women’s Lives and The Science Question in Feminism, and editor of Feminism and Methodology: Social Science Issues.

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Table of Contents


Introduction: Eurocentric Scientific Illiteracy—A Challenge for the World Community
Sandra Harding

I. Early Non-Western Scientific Traditions

Poverties and Triumphs of the Chinese Scientific Tradition
Joseph Needham

Black Athena: Hostilities to Egypt in the Eighteenth Century
Martin Bernal

Early Andean Experimental Agriculture
Jack Weatherford

II. Science Constructs “Race”

American Polygeny and Craniometry before Darwin: Blacks and Indians as Separate, Inferior Species
Stephen Jay Gould

Racial Classifications: Popular and Scientific
Gloria A. Marshall

The Study of Race
S.L. Washburn

On the Nonexistence of Human Races
Frank B. Livingstone

IQ: The Rank Ordering of the World
R.C. Lewontin, Steven Rose, and Leon J. Kamin

The Health of Black Folk: Disease, Class, and Ideology in Science
Nancy Krieger and Mary Bassett

Appropriating the Idioms of Science: The Rejection of Scientific Racism
Nancy Leys Stepan and Sander L. Gilman

III. Who Gets to Do Science?

Aesculapius Was a White Man: Race and the Cult of True Womanhood
Ronald T. Takaki

Co-Laborer-in the Work of the Lord: Nineteenth-century Black Women Physicians
Darlene Clark Hine

Ernest Everett Just: The role of Foundation Support for Black Scientists 1920-1929
Kenneth R. Manning

Never Meant to Survive: A Black Woman’s Journey—An Interview with Evelynn Hammonds
Aimee Sands

Increasing the Participation of Black Women in Science and Technology
Shirley Malcom

Without More Minorities, Women, Disabled, U.S. Scientific Failure Certain, Fed Study Says
Eileen M. O’Brien

Modern Science and the Periphery: The Characteristics of Dependent Knowledge
Susantha Goonatilake

IV. Science’s Technologies and Applications

The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: “A Moral Astigmatism”
James Jones

Calling the Shots? The International Politics of Depo-Provera
Phillida Bunkle

Colonialism and the Evolution of Masculinist Forestry
Vandana Shiva

Applied Biology in the Third World: The Struggle for Revolutionary Science
Richard Levins and Richard Lewontin

Environmental Racism
Karl Grossman

V. Objectivity, Method, and Nature: Value Neutral?

Methods and Values in Science
National Academy of Sciences

Nazi Medicine and the Politics of Knowledge
Robert Proctor

Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in Science
Nancy Leys Stepan

The Bio-politics of a Multicultural Field
Donna Haraway

Cultural Differences in High-Energy Physics: Contrasts between Japan and the United States
Sharon Traweek

The “Relevance” of Anthropology to Colonialism and Imperialism
Jack Stauder

VI. The Future: Toward a Democratic Strategy For World Sciences

Science and Democracy: A Fundamental Correlation
Joseph Needham

People’s Science
Bill Zimmerman et al.

Science and Black People
Editorial, The Black Scholar

Science, Technology and Black Community Development
Robert C. Johnson

Towards a Democratic Strategy for Science: The New Politics of Science
David Dickson

Modern Science in Crisis: A Third World Response
Third World Network

Name Index